The relationship between France and Africa through the last few decades has been deeply rooted in history and marked by complexity. Historically, France maintained a significant presence in Africa through its colonial empire, resulting in cultural, economic, and political ties. This relationship evolved as many African nations gained independence, yet France retained influence through economic cooperation and cultural exchanges. However, this partnership faced scrutiny for neo-colonial undertones, with accusations of undue interference in African affairs. African nations, in turn, sought greater autonomy and control over their resources.

Challenges like migration, terrorism, and economic disparities further shaped this intricate relationship. So far, the France-Africa dynamic has remained a blend of cooperation, mutual interests, and ongoing efforts to redefine their partnership on more equitable terms.

The France-Africa relationship has entered a new chapter in 2023, characterized by evolving dynamics both on the continent and in France itself. This partnership, marked by historical ties, economic interests, and geopolitical influences, continues to play a significant role in shaping the trajectory of African nations. In this article, we will explore the key aspects of the France-Africa relationship in 2023.

Economic ties

France maintains robust economic ties with African countries, with French companies investing in various sectors such as energy, infrastructure, and telecommunications. In 2023, these economic links will have expanded as African nations seek to modernize and diversify their economies. This presents an opportunity for mutually beneficial collaboration, where French expertise and investment can contribute to Africa's growth while benefiting French businesses.

Security cooperation

France remains actively engaged in security cooperation with African nations, particularly in the Sahel region. Operations like Barkhane continue to focus on counter-terrorism efforts, aiming to stabilize conflict-prone areas. However, ongoing military interventions have faced criticism regarding their long-term effectiveness and their potential to exacerbate instability.

Geopolitical shifts

The geopolitical landscape in 2023 has witnessed shifts that impact the France-Africa relationship. China's increasing presence and investment in Africa have prompted France to reassess its approach to the continent. France seeks to maintain its influence and expand its economic partnerships while addressing competition from other global players.

African agency

A notable development in the France-Africa relationship is the growing assertion of African agency. African nations are actively pursuing their own interests, demanding greater autonomy in economic and political decision-making. Calls for reform of currency arrangements, such as the CFA franc, underline this push for economic sovereignty.

Historical legacy

The historical legacy of French colonialism continues to influence the relationship. Calls for addressing historical grievances related to colonialism and the legacies of authoritarian regimes persist. These issues demand thoughtful consideration and dialogue to foster a more equitable partnership.

Challenges and opportunities

The France-Africa relationship in 2023 faces several challenges:

  1. Economic imbalances: African nations seek to redress economic imbalances and reduce dependency on France. Balancing economic cooperation while respecting African sovereignty is vital.
  2. Security complexities: Managing security challenges in Africa requires a nuanced approach that addresses root causes, governance issues, and regional cooperation.
  3. Competition with global players: France must navigate competition from other global actors, particularly China, to maintain its influence in Africa.
  4. Historical reckoning: Addressing historical grievances and promoting reconciliation is essential for a more equitable partnership.


The France-Africa relationship in 2023 stands at a crossroads, shaped by economic opportunities, security challenges, geopolitical shifts, and historical legacies. Both France and African nations must navigate these complexities with a commitment to mutual respect, cooperation, and the pursuit of common interests. In doing so, they can forge a more balanced and constructive partnership that contributes to the development and stability of Africa while preserving France's place in the evolving global order.