The current article argues whether International relations theory is racist if scrutinized in relation to the paradigms of realism and liberalism. The point of view of the International relations theory being based on racism is the point of argument that needs a proper discussion. There are some themes like the genesis of Eurocentric politics, Liberalism, Realism and other aspects related to racism and international politics. The point of view of international relations theory is not very proper because it prefers Eurocentric politics and in a suppressed way. That is why there is a point of confusion that international relations theory is racist or not. The role of international relations theory is not properly implemented in this context that is the point of argument that has been deployed. It needs to be understood properly how racism is impacting international relations theory. The point of criticism has been deployed in the essay in relation to the nature of Eurocentric politics. The essay has reflected that the matter of white supremacy is impacting the International relations theory in an overwhelming manner. In that case it is difficult to find the role of international relations theory in denouncing racism.

The movement of racial justice around the world have captured the attention of racism in international relations. White supremacy formed the domestic and international policies of major western countries and developed white racial dominance. Whites were considered to possess civilization whereas non-whites were considered to occupy a lower stage of development. Racism in international politics is considered to be the superiority of the western world that results in economic, security and human rights practices.

History of colonialism

As mentioned by Jiménez et al. (2021) the theory of international relations is not considered racist. It has been seen that in the case of international relations theory there is a constant question of racism. The concept of racism is a belief or a practice that creates dominance based on the concept of race (Bailey et al. 2017 1453-1463). International relations do not indulge the practice of racism. International relations theory as a discipline does not follow this concept of racism because it is a discriminatory treatment towards human beings (Alexander et al. 2014 1056-1059).

However, the argument is constant in this context because of these practices in society. The practice of racism is related to some factors which are associated with historical incidents. Colonization of Asian countries, African colonization, division of the world based on the Second World War is related to this concept (Jiménez et al. 2021 374-378). According to some authors, there is a 'Theory of Abstraction' in international relations which refers to the characteristics of dominance to a newcomer (Shankaran 2001. 401-424). Based on this perspective it can be said that the people from the colonial region have entered the path of international relations after a long time of dominance by European and American countries. The Asian and African countries got independence and they became an integral part of international politics as well. However, in the colonial era the western countries tended to dominate the world, to be more specific it can be considered as European and North American centralism in this context.

It can be said that it occurred because of the uprising of the USA in the twentieth century. That is why it can be said that the nature of dominance is coming from this concept. European and North American countries have a nature to neglect indigenous, African and Latin American people. According to some authors (Mitchell et al. 2017 589-595) the dominance of people from European origin is not only a matter of study while discussing racialisation in international relations theory, but also there are some influences of the practice of dominance where there is an influence of international relations theory in a hidden way (Henderson 2014 31-35).

The concept of racism depicts the dynamics of social, political, institutional and psychological aspects which seek the identity of a human-based on a special characteristic. To be very specific, seeking the identity of people based on their complexion. The reason for raising this question is very specific because international relations theories are not playing a central role against racialized dispossession. It has been an institutional disciplinary matter. It is not only the tendency to only focus on the Western countries. Global history is responsible for this matter to happen. If it is considered that the concentration to the west is the reason behind then as the supporting statement it can be said that the West is a racialized category indexed to whiteness. On the other hand, if it is noticed that colonialism is centralised by the European countries so it can be the reason behind this dominance. The race is not a concept it is under the big three paradigm of international relations. Race is not a perspective of international relations, it is actually bothering the entire global politics.

Contemporary movements

There are many examples in America where the commoners became bound to move forward towards the movements like 'Black lives matter' for the ongoing situation in the country. The concept of racism according to the social and point of view does not focus only on the biological characteristics, it is concentrated with a lot of things in the form of indexes like civilization, modernization, and development, primitive. In this context, it can be said these parameters are responsible for this style of thinking and which is impacting global politics and international relations.

These practices are ongoing for a long time so they can be acknowledged as generic racism. It has a need for the language of diversity and inclusion but the structural injustice is going to be bigger than that. The matter of racism in international relations theory is hidden which is not seen in the appearance. In this context, the argument starts with this perspective of international relations policy. It needs more focus to understand the original perspective of international relations theory behind it because this confusion is now a matter of discussion because of the incidents in recent days. The global environment is facing issues with this concept.

Some authors (Hébert 2018 202-204) have said that the matter is now at the stage of a pandemic. The matter of hierarchy is important in this discussion because it has opened a door for a new understanding of race and global politics. It has also been seen that the matter of racism can influence international laws and it can affect foreign affairs as well. The life of South Pacific people is impacted negatively and it is a matter of social security also. It was a struggle for them to survive after the anti-colonial period. It can be said that international politics is ignoring the matter of racism and colonialism as well. The significance of these discussions and the statement has been more relevant after the movement of Black lives matter, which is not centralised only in the US, it was a global movement against racism in the US.

In a sovereign state, it is not expected because the thinking of racism is impacting the lives of people. International relations policies need to focus on this matter in a very concerned way because the repetition of these kinds of incidents can lead to massive movement throughout the world. In this context, the power dynamics are important to focus on because it determines the possibilities of vulnerability regarding this issue. In that case, there is also a factor of discussion that the matter of liberalism is not impacting modern democracy. To be very specific it can be said it has failed to create modern democracy. It is also a matter of discussion in this context because if liberalism, another important factor of international relations theory, can create modern democracy, the scenario will be different. That is why it can be said that there is a matter left that how international relations policies can mitigate this issue. It is undoubtedly a point of discussion because the role of international relations theory is creating confusion regarding the matter of racism.

The matter of diversity is an important concept while discussing this matter of racism. It needs to accept the characteristics related to diversity. In the colonial period, it has been so prominent that the European people have a disgrace against the indigenous and African people. It can be considered as the continuation of this practice. It basically makes a clear view of the socio- political conflicts in the aspects of global politics. The US related international event which is considered to be racial is the construction of a wall on US Mexico border. Although this kind of politics is critiqued it also shows the inability to address racial issues. Racial discrimination can be more than just the direct behaviour of people. It can be the denial of rental opportunities or employment opportunities to people.

International relations theory

Considering all these aspects it can be said that the theories are continuously emerging so it is important to consider the relevant theories. For example, people initially considered the earth to be flat and accepted this theory. However, with the development and advancement of technology, people discarded the previous theory. Liberalism and realism are considered to be the two central theories of international relations. Liberalism is a theory that considers human beings to be innately good and that peace and harmony is something that is desirable between countries around the world.

Implementing the ideas of the liberals, the US president on January 1918 addressed to Congress his 'Fourteen Points' in the last year of the first world war. As he shared his ideas for rebuilding the world after the war, the aim of his last explanation was to create an association of nations which was called the League of Nations. The objective of creating the League of Nations was to oversee the affairs between different states and to maintain international peace. However, the League of Nations collapsed because of the Second World War and the Liberals faced difficulties on account of this event because it contradicted their theories. Liberalism failed because of this event and a new theory emerged which was called the theory of realism. Realism is another theory that was noticed after the second world war which shows how a war originates after a period of peace and harmony. Realists have identified a similar pattern of the behaviour of people in the present world as compared with the ancient world. Liberalism and realism have different approaches when it comes to viewing human nature. Realists believe that people behave selfishly according to their own requirements without considering the requirements of others.

On the other hand, liberals consider people to be inherently good. So, liberals have an optimistic view on international relations whereas realists share a pessimistic view. Another theory is constructivism which shows the interests shared between people who interact internationally.

These people are politicians and diplomats who interact on the world stage. The essence of international relations lies in the communication and interaction among people in different countries. It is believed that constructivism came into existence when traditional theories such as liberalism and realism failed to be accountable.


In this discussion, the International relations theory is analysed with a reflection of racism which has been an integral part of the discussion. The matter of white supremacy is clear after this argument. Most importantly how the concept of racism is impacting the international relations theory is analysed properly in this argument. It helps to have a clear understanding of racism in international relations theory. It is important to understand that there is an influence of colonial history in the international relations theory for the dominance of western countries. Different opinions of authors have been depicted in this study and it is important to understand the impact of this situation in society.

This discussion is providing an understanding of the racist perspective in international relations theory. The matter of liberalism is significant in this context which is included in the discussion. It needs a proper description of where the international relations theory is influenced by a specific origin. The discussion has included the aspects which are important and related to international relations theory. The discussion has depicted that the international relations does not indulge the matter of racism but there is an influence of racism that is hidden. The origin of the concept of racism is clear in this discussion and the relation of the concept with international relations has been deployed in this discussion. It can be said that it has been a relevant discussion and the role of international relations theory needs to be very specific but because of the constant influence it does not seem to be proper.