Bukhara is the second largest region in Uzbekistan after the Navoi region. Bukhara city is the administrative centre of the region and is famous for its historical heritage. Furthermore, it was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Like the Navoi region, the region of Bukhara is also covered by the Kyzylkum desert. Bukhara is one of the diverse regions of Bukhara, after Uzbeks, Russians, Turkmens, Tatars and Persians are considered as the largest ethnic groups.
The administrative city of Bukhara, Bukhara city is famous for its 2500 years of history. There are a lot of ancient structures in the city that fascinate visitors. Bukhara was known as the center of learning. A lot of scholars like Imam al-Bukhari were born here and studied. Furthermore, it is located on the Silk Road and was the hub of international trade for many centuries.
Minorai Kalon, Ark Citadel, Kalon mosque are some of the historical monuments located in the historical center of Bukhara. Minorai Kalon, translated from Persian as the Great Minaret is the symbol of Bukhara. It was built in 1127 by Karakhanid ruler Arslan Khan. For many centuries, it has stood as the symbol of Bukhara. The minaret survived many invasions. In the 13th century, when Gengis Khan started conquering, a lot of architectural buildings, religious and social structures and bazaars were destroyed across the Silk Road and including Central Asia. Minorai Kalon in Bukhara is one of the few structures that were not touched by Gengis Khan.
Also, in the 20th century when Russians attacked Bukhara, they tried to destroy the minaret with cannons and they were not able to destroy it. However, the minaret was very damaged. Later, it was restored on the 2500th anniversary of Bukhara. Next to the minaret, there is Poi Kalon mosque, it is also one of the oldest mosques in Bukhara and considered as the treasure of history of Uzbekistan.
Few hundred meters away from the Minaret, there is the Ark. The Ark Citadel of Bukhara, built around the 5th century, is a historic fortress in Uzbekistan that served as a defensive stronghold, royal residence, administrative hub, and military base. Perched on a hill, its baked brick walls enclosed a complex network of chambers and courtyards, offering a strategic vantage point for observing the city and its surroundings. With a storied past, it bore witness to pivotal historical events and regime changes, from the Samanid Empire to Genghis Khan and Timur's reign, contributing to Bukhara's significance along the Silk Road. Now a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Ark Citadel stands as a well-preserved testament to its rich history, attracting global visitors intrigued by its architectural marvels and cultural heritage.
As it was mentioned above, Bukhara was the center of learning. There are still ancient madrasas preserved in the city that date back to centuries. For instance, Mir Arab madrasa built in the 16th century, Abdulaziz Khan madrasa built in the 17th century, or Chor Minor madrasa which is famous for its architecture. The city is home to the tombs of famous historical figures like Ismail Samani. Ismail Samani was the founder of the Samanid Empire which ruled Central Asia over a century. The mausoleum of Ismail Samani is famous for its unique architecture and brickwork. Apart from those mentioned above, Sitorai Mohi Khosa (summer palace of the Emir of Bukhara), Lyabi Hauz and Bolo Hauz mosques are quite famous among tourists.
Bukhara is also famous for its “7 pir” (7 saints). Locals and pilgrims from other countries visit the mausoleums in an order. Overall, it is important to mention that Bukhara is a very historical and beautiful city. It is the perfect destination for those who want to travel back to history.