The storage rooms of the Iconography Department hold more than 550 thousand exhibits. It is the largest department of Lithuanian collections in the museum, which was established in 1993 while systemising the iconographic material accumulated by the Ethnography and History Departments.

The iconographic collections are formed on the basis of the collections of the Vilnius Museum of Antiquities, the Lithuanian Scientific Society, the Wróblewski Library, the Vilnius Society of Lovers of Science, and the Belarusian Museum. Upon the restoration of Lithuania’s independence, the department’s holdings were supplemented by the collections of the restructured Museum of the History of Religions and the Lithuanian State History Museum, and later – the exhibits of the House of the Signatories, the Museum of Architecture, and the Kazys Varnelis House – Museum.

The collection consists of the following main groups of exhibits: graphic arts, painting, sculpture, photography and negatives, deltiology, philately, posters, and architectural drawings.