According to the NEPF’s (national economic policy frameworks) Chapter 2: Conceptual Framework of Evaluations, the main aim of the section is to provide context concerning defining evaluations which stated that according to the context, defining evaluation as a “branch of applied research that attempts to identify cause- effect relationships within a specific intervention context” (NEPF, November 2019). The NDP’s 2030 objective of creating economic stability as well as job creation from exports contributes to its key points of eliminating poverty and reducing inequality while raising levels of employment through productivity, growth, and the earnings of the working people (NDP 2030, n.d., p. 109).

A theme set forward in the Monitoring & Evaluation Indaba held in November 2017, under the theme ‘Opportunities And Challenges Of Using Evidence From Monitoring & Evaluation (M&E) To Accelerate Economic Development And Employment In Africa’, challenged the notion of M&E in economic development in South Africa. The former Minister in the Presidency, Jeff Radebe, noted that M&E continued to improve the lives of African countries, which he noted contributed to the progress brought forward regarding the ideals of human rights, freedom, peace, and development, and improved the quality of life (Department of Province Economic Development, n.d.). Additional reference during the Indaba explained by the Minister highlighted how the 5-year Medium-Term Strategic Framework (MTSF) was an instrument used by Cabinet in engaging with monitoring evidence. An example of this from of monitoring was seen in Operation Phakisa, which saw stakeholders, private sector members, civil society, and public entities engage with the initiative, Operation Phakisa Delivery Labs.

Evaluation and Private sector involvement

NEPF’s Types of Evaluation: Design Evaluation.

Additionally, the (NDP 2030, n.d., p. 109) stated: “South Africa requires both a capable and developmental states, able to act to redress historical inequities and a vibrant and thriving private sector able to invest, employ people, and penetrate global markets”. The NEPF explained that design evaluation would make use of internal logic and consistency of the programme, either before a programme starts, or during the implementation to review whether the theory of change appeared to be relevant and working. Greene (2012, p. x) stated that achieving greater social equity is “increasingly becoming a common goal of government, civil society organisations, and development partners alike”. This cooperation between organisations, private sector, and government can actively shape the ecosystem of a programme cohesively.

The decision brought forward in the NDP in developing capabilities with the intent of private sector development, can be addressed by zoning into the design of the programme. According to South African Government (n.d.), Operation Phakisa was “designed to fast-track the implementation of solutions on critical development issues”. This was decided to address the issues outlined in the NDP 2030 surrounding unemployment and poverty. The Department of Forestry, Fisheries, and the Environment (DFFE), highlighted that the introduction of Operation Phakisa: Oceans Economy saw various commitments by both government and private sector involvement in the funding of various projects which would create direct jobs as well as production turnover.

NEPF’s types of evaluation: outcome dvaluation

The NEPF highlights within the Outcome Evaluation that: “This form of evaluation should measure the degree to which the program is affecting the target populations while being and or behaviors” (National Evaluation Policy Framework, 2019, p. 23). This can be monitored through the NDP’s classification of a “middle income trap”. The NDP 2030 (n.d., p.112) states “many economies that have achieved middle income states struggle to shift further upwards. However, many have experienced substantial, relatively slow growth over the past decade”. This difference would be seen in how much the government invests directly into human capital, product development, and technology.

NEPF’s types of evaluation: economic evaluation

Clair (2016) argued that eyes on a private sector interface could provide engagement and development on M&E standards for adaption. This can be highlighted in the NEPF’s subsector of types of economic evaluation. The NEPF stated that an economic evaluation can be implemented at any time of a programme. “Economic evaluation considers whether the costs of a policy or programme are commensurate with the benefits (value add)” (National Evaluation Policy Framework, 2019, p. 23). The NDPs objective of adapting “effective partnerships across society can create a virtuous cycle of rising confidence, rising investment, higher employment, rising productivity and incomes can be generated” (NDP 2030, n.d., p. 109).


The term value in evaluation can be implicit when held up against the relevant stakeholders which adds to the effectiveness of a programme. The NDP’s Chapter 3 on Economy and Employment can see development pathways of a certain initiative as having embedded views from the ecosystem of the programme. Operation Phakisa is a key initiative employed by the government with careful interaction from the private sector. The systemic belief systems of evaluation are mandatory in understanding the values of a programme, while cultural influence can sometimes cause the evaluation of a programme to become linear if institutional arrangements and individual worldviews are neglected. Classifying which public sector evaluation approaches can be “fit for purpose” will rely on the sub sectors of evaluation, with emphasis on its immediate or long-term outcomes.


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Department of Forestry, Fisheries, and the Environment. (n.d.). Operation Phakisa – Oceans Economy.
Department of Province Economic Development. (n.d.). The 1st Africa, Monitoring & Evaluation Indaba.
Department Planning, Monitoring, And Evaluation. (2019, November 1). National Evaluation Policy Framework.
Greene, J. (2012). Values-engaged evaluation. Evaluation for equitable development results, 192-206.
National Development Plan 2030. (n.d.). National Development Plan 2030 Our Future-Make It Work. Rogers, P.J. (2008). Using Programme Theory to Evaluate Complicated and Complex Aspects of Interventions. Evaluation, 14(1), 29-48.
South African Government. (n.d.). Government programmes, projects and campaigns.
Steyn, D. (2021, November 3). Should the proposed N2 toll road through the Wild Coast be moved?.
Steyn, D. & Damba-Hendrick, N. (2021, August 2). SANRAL’s N2 toll road development on Wild Coast fueling community division.