The collection documents the advances in our knowledge and understanding of nature and the cosmos. It partly dates back to the personal collection of instruments belonging to the famous astronomer and mathematician Johannes Regiomontan (1436–1476). The history of medicine is represented in a broad range of fields, from alchemy to tooth extraction.

The collection boasts many world-famous artefacts from the history of science and technology, including the Behaim Globe, the so-called Peter-Henlein's-Watch, as well as the rich collection of astrolabes, globes, folding sundials and several collections of apothecary equipment, preserved in full.