The Mineral Collection comprises approximately 180,000 samples of about 3,000 mineral species, which is approximately 60 % of all known minerals. It is the largest and most diverse mineral collection in Germany and therefore comparable in significance to collections of other major natural history museums in Europe.

The collection has a long and colourful history. The regional focus of the collection specimens lies in Germany, Poland, the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian monarchy, and Russia.

A selection comprising approximately 4,300 samples of 1077 different mineral species is accessible in the Mineral Hall of the public exhibition. In addition, there are collections of crystal models, technical products and archive material relating to them. The collection also contains a number of scientifically valuable type specimens.