Works painted in the powerful island republic of Venice and its mainland territories in northern Italy between 1500 - 1600 dominate this room. Venetian art of this period is famous for its use of brilliant, saturated colours and bold brushwork. Among the many highly talented artists who emerged during this period, Titian was the outstanding master. Canvas was increasingly used as a support instead of wood.

The traditional categories of religious painting, portraiture and mythology were expanded to include new subjects such as allegories, landscapes and sensual nudes. Florentine art of this period was stylistically very different, with its elegant poses and highly polished surfaces.

The Scottish National Gallery is currently undergoing major refurbishment to expand and improve the gallery spaces devoted to Scottish art. During this period, the Trinity Altarpiece by Hugo van der Goes will be displayed alongside the works in this display.