On display are the ancient relics from the Paleolithic Age to the early Iron Age discovered on the territories of the Caucasus, Crimea, European Russia and Central Asia.

Among the most ancient exhibits are the implements of work and the female statuettes which came into the museum from the ancient encampments of the Paleolithic Age. The petroglyphs discovered in the Prionezhskiy District (Karelia) date back to the 4,000 – 3,000 B.C.

Various archaeological materials describe the agricultural crops cultivated between the late 4,000 and early 2,000 B.C. The bronze objects discovered during the excavation work near the village of Koban in Ossetia (early 1,000 B.C.) give a general picture of the Koban cultural phenomenon.